International Journal of Research in Entrepreneurship & Business Studies <div align="justify"><strong>International Journal of Research in Entrepreneurship &amp; Business Studies</strong> (IJREBS-eISSN-2708-8006) is an online open-access research journal publishing blind peer-reviewed latest research work in the field of Business Studies. </div> <div align="justify"> </div> <div align="justify"><strong> </strong></div> <div align="justify"><strong class="font-size-20 lh-1">Aim and Scope of the Journal</strong></div> <div align="justify">IJREBS aims to publish articles, original research results, reviews, and case studies on recent trends in the field of Entrepreneurship, Commerce, and Business Studies, the themes, and the sub-themes are broadly classified as follows: </div> <div align="justify"> </div> <div align="justify"><strong>Entrepreneurship, </strong><strong>Management, </strong><strong>Banking, Finance &amp; Insurance, </strong><strong>Marketing, </strong><strong>Economics, </strong><strong>Tourism &amp; </strong><strong>International Business</strong></div> <div align="justify"> </div> <div align="justify">The scope is to create an easy avenue and platform for budding academicians in the middle east region and the developing countries by enhancing research facilities through support and assistance and extending the same to interested researchers all over the world. </div> Global Scientific Publications en-US International Journal of Research in Entrepreneurship & Business Studies 2708-8006 Continuous Improvement Practices in Manufacturing Companies in the Sultanate of Oman <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>The aims of this study were to identify Continuous Improvement (CI) practices prevailing in the manufacturing companies with regards to Visual Management, Employee Engagement, Leadership and Risk Management; to identify continuous improvement tools that have been adopted by the manufacturing companies; and to analyse the critical success factors for implementing CI practices in manufacturing companies.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong></p> <p>For this study, a survey questionnaire was used to collect the CI practices information from manufacturing companies in Oman. &nbsp;146 samples were collected from 75 manufacturing units selected at random from the Public Establishment for Industrial Estate database. The data was analysed for reliability, robustness, ranking tests using Statistical Package for Social Statistics (SPSS).</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The majority of the manufacturing firms were using only the CI program for the past five years. However, there was not substantial cost savings for these businesses. The overall sales increased, while the average processing time had declined and the product recalls also had increased. The most important factors identified for the effective implementation of CI in industrial firms were effective communication, top management encouragement, and employee involvement and conducive organization atmosphere.</p> <p><strong>Social Implications</strong></p> <p>Sultanate of Oman like any other GCC countries is undergoing a critical phase in economy because of the oil price plunge combined with ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The paper will be of use to academics, researchers and continuous improvement practitioners.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong></p> <p>So far, very few studies have been conducted in analysing the factors correlated to CI in the Omani context and no study was carried out before in exploring the CI application in the Sultanate of Oman.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Samiya Al Qayoudhi Shanmuga Pria Venkata Prasad Copyright (c) 2021 Samiya Abdullah Al-Qayoudhi, Shanmuga Pria, Venkata Vara Prasad 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 1 14 New Distribution Capability (NDC) and its Effects on Travel Industry in Oman <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The objectives of the study were to analyze the effects of transformation from GDS to NDC from the perspectives of the travel agencies in Oman; to find out the concerns of the travel agencies in Oman with regards to the implementation of NDC and to compare the benefits of NDC content with GDS from the perspectives of the travel agencies in Oman.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> A questionnaire survey, telephone, and personal interview were conducted with 19top leading travel agencies in Muscatregion, Oman. Each travel agency manager was given the questionnaire through online. The telephone/ personal interview was also conducted. Around 78 employees were targeted out of which only 13 responded. The data collected was analyzed using Statistical package.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings support the fact that Oman being a small market with many small and medium players’ implementations of NDC is slow. The current pandemic has slowed it down even further. But the travel agencies should be offered help in terms of training and awareness by the NDC platform and some major airlines to speed up the adaptation. The study showed that the high cost of technological implementation is going to be one of the major barriers to complete switch to NDC system. As of now, the travel agents will be settling for GDS with NDC.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> The adaptation by NDChas been slow especially by airlines. With IATA pushing the implementation, major airlines are slowly but surely adapting it as they can see the benefits they can derive. The customers too are benefiting from direct buying. The travel agencies in Oman especially small and medium-sized travel agencies are the ones who are most affected and there is not enough research being done to find what is stopping them from adapting.</p> <p><strong>Social implications:</strong> The pandemic has devastated the travel industry overall. Many small and medium businesses have been forced to shut due to lockdowns. Further, the customers have got used to online shopping at a discounted and competitive price. Under such a scenario, it will take the travel agents some time to start enjoying the same levels of profit margins as the pre-pandemic days. This will have an impact on unemployment as well as the inability to meet loan commitments. This can have a ripple effect.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value:</strong> Few academic research has been carried out on NDC, especially in the Middle East. This research is the first of its kind which is dedicated to travel agents from Oman. The fact that NDC is set to revolutionize the shopping experience for the consumer one cannot ignore the fact that it is set to blow a dent in the revenues of the Travel agents.</p> Jayashree Krishnamurthy Yugesh Krishnan Copyright (c) 2021 Jayashree Krishnamurthy, Yugesh Krishnan 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 15 26 Backlogs through Bottlenecks in Warehouse Pickups Areas: A Case Study - Gulf Nails manufacturing LLC <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>The study aims to investigate backlogs within the picking procedures, to find out what is causing storage picking bottlenecks, and to estimate its effect on creating throughout warehouse picking operations.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong></p> <p>For this study, a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a primary source. The staff of the Gulf Nails Enterprise was taken into account as the population of the study. A total of 20 responses were recorded from the population of 50 persons employed in the company. The collected data was analyzed quantitatively to bring out the results.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The findings confirmed that the most of the warehouse pickup area bottlenecks occur due to least adaptation towards technologies. It is shown that the bottleneck issue could affect 20 to 30 percent of the production line. It is also evidenced that not only tools but strategic planning and efforts by the staff are extremely important in solving a bottleneck issue.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications</strong></p> <p>The study recommended that an inventory management system would keep the bottlenecks in check. Introducing modern technology, could help to solve such issues so that human efforts would not be wasted. It is also suggested that the firm should not rely fully on the technology solutions as it is also one of the causes of bottlenecks.</p> <p><strong>Social implications</strong></p> <p>This paper will help understand, recognize and solve the various issues faced by the majority of companies in the area of warehouse pickups, not only in Oman but outside as well.</p> <p><strong>Originality/Value</strong></p> <p>There has been a lot of studies and research on several areas of warehouse operations but none so far on the topic of the general pickup area of the warehouse.</p> Ahmed Al Saqri Panagiotis Nikolaou Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Al Saqri, Panagiotis Nikolaou 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 27 36 Examining the Effect of Budgetary Controls on the Financial Performance of Oman Telecommunication Company <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <p>The objectives of the study were to analyze the different budgetary control techniques that affect and how it affects the financial performances; to determine the ways of effective budgetary control affecting the financial performances and to identify and to evaluate the roles of top management in budgetary control techniques of the Oman Telecommunications Company.</p> <p><strong>Research Methodology</strong></p> <p>A questionnaire was prepared for collecting the survey. The respondents were the employees of the financial department and also officials and supervisors from other departments of the Oman Telecommunications Company. The questionnaires were distributed to 60 members and the data collected was analyzed using Microsoft Excel to obtain the frequencies, percentages, and descriptive analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The results indicated that there is a positive relationship between budgetary control and the financial performance of the company.</p> <p>The results also indicated that the company preferred the Responsibility accounting technique, Revenue budgeting technique, and variance analysis technique. It is also reported that the management is informed of the deviations regularly, and the managers take corrective measures promptly as and when required. It was found that the top management of the Oman Telecommunications Company is aware of the importance of budgetary control techniques and supports them.</p> <p><strong>Research Implication</strong></p> <p>From the results, it was recommended that the company should give prior attention to developing budgetary control through proper planning, ensure continuous evaluation of comparative analysis of actuals vs. budget. It was also suggested that the company introduce enterprise resource planning (ERP) as the monitoring will become easy for the financial management in ensuring the productivity of the employees in the budgetary control process.</p> <p><strong>Social Implication</strong></p> <p>The study will allow financial managers in various companies to understand the serious nature of budgetary control techniques, their importance, and the extent of the impact which in turn will help them to improve efficiency in achieving financial performances.</p> <p><strong>Novelty</strong></p> <p>No study was carried out before to study the impact of budgetary control on the organizational performance of Oman Telecommunication Company. This is a maiden attempt.</p> Raya Mohammed Mahroqi Maria Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Raya Mohammed Amur Al Mahroqi, Maria Teresa Martiano 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 37 46 The Impact of COVID-19 on the Financial Performance of Bank Dhofar <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The aims of this research was to identify how COVID-19 had affected the financial performance of Bank Dhofar, to analyze the financial performance indicators, to evaluate how did Bank Dhofar react to the changes and to evaluate whether Bank Dhofar had taken right action take to mitigate potential financial performance damages.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>This research follows a descriptive analytics research method. The primary data was collected using a questionnaire. Samples were selected based on random sampling technique. 30 samples were collected from those who were related to and involved in the audit and accounting of the financial information services of Bank Dhofar. Once the data was collected, the analysis was done using Microsoft Excel.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>Based on the financial reports, COVID-19 has negatively impacted the profit generated of Bank Dhofar and also negatively impacted the Net Interest Margin (NIM). Bank Dhofar had also taken necessary precautionary measures against COVID-19 such as reserves and provisions.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong>Based on the results, it was recommended that the Bank focuses on the digitized platform for an even more efficient mean of working remotely and focus on employee morale, as these factors may negatively impact financial performance.</p> <p><strong>Social Implications : </strong>This research would add collective knowledge on how COVID-19 affected the nation and could influence decision makers, rules and regulations.</p> <p><strong>Originality / Value: </strong>No research was found regarding the financial performance of a bank in Oman during COVID-19. This research was an attempt to tackle the situation and thrown light.</p> Adnan Al-Bimani Maria Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Adnan Al-Bimani, Maria Teresa Matriano 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 47 56 The Impact of Online Work on the Operating Costs of Petroleum Development Oman (PDO) <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The objectives of the study were to evaluate how PDO is adapting to the online work approach, to analyze and identify the operating costs of the company that got affected by switching to an online work approach, to evaluate the impacts of the online work approach on operating costs and to evaluate the effects of online work on financial performance and changes in operating costs.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The population of the study was the employees of PDO – the managers and the employees of the accounting and finance department especially those who were involved with the financial issues and were responsible for the company’s cost and revenue calculations. The study included 54 samples from the population. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire using a Google Form and the samples were selected on a random sampling technique. Interview was also conducted. The data collected were analyzed using different data processing methods of data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The study revealed that PDO successfully adapted to the transition from traditional working to online working and the technology played a key role in doing so. Employees felt benefitted from online working as they were able to manage work-life balance. It was also observed that working online with efficiency reduced the operating costs and increased productivity. It was confirmed the claim that the work-from-home online working benefitted the company significantly in reducing the operating costs.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong>It was suggested that the employees should be well equipped with modern technological equipment and advanced applications to support the online working conditions. The option should be given to employees to work from home should be made as a part of the work routine work even after the pandemic to maintain the work-life balance.</p> <p><strong>Social Implications : </strong>The study suggested that the management including the project owners and managers must focus and work more on developing a work style that suits the requirements of different work teams in online working.</p> <p><strong>Originality / Value: </strong>This is the first time a study of this kind was carried out to find out the impacts of pandemic on the operating costs and the financial performance of a company. This is a maiden attempt.</p> Hana al_habsi Maria Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Hana Ahmed ALhabsi, Maria Teresa Matriano 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 57 64 The Impact of Internal Control through Computerized Accounting System among Small and Medium Enterprises in Oman <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>The aims of the study were to identify and evaluate the internal controls used in a computerized accounting system of the SMEs, to identify and evaluate the merits and demerits of the internal controls used in the companies, and to identify the challenges in the implementation of internal control systems in the computerized accounting system of the SMEs.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach: </strong>The population of the study was the employees of the SME’s registered with Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MOCI) in Muscat, Oman. Samples were selected from this population on a random sampling basis. One-member employee from the SMEs representing the enterprise filled the questionnaire. The survey was conducted through a questionnaire using a Google form. 220 samples were collected from the population. The data collected was analyzed using data processing methods and Microsoft excel.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>The study found that SMEs were using computers to perform their daily transactions and the accounting software used by SMEs were cheap, of low quality and not proficient enough. One of the components of internal control system, i.e. monitoring was implemented by most of the SMEs and they also stated that they rarely hired an external auditor for auditing because of the expensive auditing fees. It was also stated that the security mechanisms were not properly implemented in the SMEs because of the expensive cost.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications: </strong>The study suggested that the Government should emphasize the SMEs to implement a good internal control system. This can reduce the errors and also increase the efficiency of operations. SOX in Omani context should be strictly implemented making it statutory and mandatory for all the SMEs in Oman and such statutory laws will help the auditors to abide by the rules and regulations to be followed.</p> <p><strong>Social Implications : </strong>Government should support SMEs through providing education on the importance of internal control systems as most of the employees of SMEs are poorly educated/illiterates. The Government should set a price ceiling to the external auditors on the auditing fees exclusively for SMEs so that they can afford.</p> <p><strong>Originality / Value: </strong>No study was carried before in relates to the impact of the internal control system through the computerized accounting system among the SMEs in Muscat, Oman. This study will through light on the statutory laws required for the sake of internal control measures required for the SMEs.</p> Asila Alzakwani Maria Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Asila Mohamed alzakwani, Maria Teresa Matriano 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 65 74 Can Salalah be a round the year Tourism Destination? – Visitors’ Experiences & Expectations <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aims of the study were to identify and evaluate the internal controls used in a computerized accounting system of the SMEs, to identify and evaluate the merits and demerits of the internal controls used in the companies, and to identify the challenges in the implementation of internal control systems in the computerized accounting system of the SMEs.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach:</strong> A questionnaire was prepared for the study and the responses were obtained through the questionnaire circulating the same among the public of Al Batinah region of Oman. The samples were selected on a random sampling basis. 201 completed samples were obtained. Further, the study was restricted to the selected variables such as Infrastructure, Services available, Marketing &amp; promotion, and Government support.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The study revealed that Salalah was busy during the Khareef festival season and that there was a lack of infrastructural facilities such as Highways, Hygiene, Emergency health facilities, Telecommunication facilities, and personal amenity services. It was concluded that the marketing to promote Salalah as a year-round destination was inadequate. However, it was observed that the private sector started contributing to the development of Salalah tourism through establishing tourist offices/tourists guide centers/transports for tourists.</p> <p><strong>Research limitations/implications:</strong> &nbsp;The study suggested that the Government should educate the youth of Salalah, train and prepare them for the future tourism industry. The study was conducted in Al Batinah region of Oman and it can be extended to the entire people of Oman to know their expectations.</p> <p><strong>Social implications:</strong> Government should support the people of Salalah through land development schemes etc. and jointly with the private sector need to work involving all the stakeholders to improve tourism in Salalah to attract more people. Green initiatives for the sustainability of tourism in Salalah should be triggered as the natural eco-friendly environment will obviously support it.</p> <p><strong>Originality</strong><strong>/Value:</strong> The study of its first kind as the study expects to add value to tourism industry in Oman and in particular Salalh and the Dhofar region.</p> Noura Al Jahwari Firdouse Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Noura Al Jahwari, Firdouse Rahman Khan 2021-07-11 2021-07-11 2 3 75 88